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Web14/12/ · Windows 11 Migration Guide: 4 Best Practices When Upgrading. Oct 21, Top stories. What Is AI-Assisted Coding, and Should You Use It? Dec 16, Should developers use AI to generate code? Here are the pros and cons of AI-assisted coding. ITPro Today’s Top 10 Stories About Microsoft in WebThis site uses cookies to offer you a better browsing experience. Find out more on how we use cookies WebYour 1 Best Option for Custom Assignment Service and Extras; 9 Promises from a Badass Essay Writing Service; Professional Case Study Writing Help: As Close to % As You Will Ever Be; Finding the 10/10 Perfect Cheap Paper Writing Services; 15 Qualities of the Best University Essay Writers WebQuestia. After more than twenty years, Questia is discontinuing operations as of Monday, December 21, Web18/02/ · Sex can be much more complicated than it at first seems. According to the simple scenario, the presence or absence of a Y chromosome is what counts: with it, you are male, and without it, you are ... read more

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NFT: Mets sign C Omar Narvaez. NFT: Spanish Restaurants in or around Union County. NFT: Yankees sign Rodon. NFT: What would you do if NFT: Your NEW YORK Rangers vs Toronto Maple Leafs. NFT: Mount Rushmore of NY Sports. NFT: Noah Syndergaard signing with Dodgers. NFT: Any Deadwood fans here?

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A few cases have been documented in which a mosaic XXY embryo became a mix of two cell types — some with two X chromosomes and some with two Xs and a Y — and then split early in development This results in 'identical' twins of different sexes. There is a second way in which a person can end up with cells of different chromosomal sexes. James's patient was a chimaera: a person who develops from a mixture of two fertilized eggs, usually owing to a merger between embryonic twins in the womb.

Another form of chimaerism, however, is now known to be widespread. Termed microchimaerism, it happens when stem cells from a fetus cross the placenta into the mother's body, and vice versa. It was first identified in the early s — but the big surprise came more than two decades later, when researchers discovered how long these crossover cells survive, even though they are foreign tissue that the body should, in theory, reject. A study in recorded women with fetal cells in their blood as many as 27 years after giving birth 13 ; another found that maternal cells remain in children up to adulthood This type of work has further blurred the sex divide, because it means that men often carry cells from their mothers, and women who have been pregnant with a male fetus can carry a smattering of its discarded cells.

Microchimaeric cells have been found in many tissues. In , for example, immunologist Lee Nelson and her team at the University of Washington in Seattle found XY cells in post-mortem samples of women's brains The oldest woman carrying male DNA was 94 years old.

Other studies have shown that these immigrant cells are not idle; they integrate into their new environment and acquire specialized functions, including in mice at least forming neurons in the brain But what is not known is how a peppering of male cells in a female, or vice versa, affects the health or characteristics of a tissue — for example, whether it makes the tissue more susceptible to diseases more common in the opposite sex. Scientists are now finding that XX and XY cells behave in different ways, and that this can be independent of the action of sex hormones.

He and his colleagues have shown 17 that the dose of X chromosomes in a mouse's body can affect its metabolism, and studies in a lab dish suggest 18 that XX and XY cells behave differently on a molecular level, for example with different metabolic responses to stress. The next challenge, says Arnold, is to uncover the mechanisms. His team is studying the handful of X-chromosome genes now known to be more active in females than in males. Biologists may have been building a more nuanced view of sex, but society has yet to catch up.

True, more than half a century of activism from members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community has softened social attitudes to sexual orientation and gender.

Many societies are now comfortable with men and women crossing conventional societal boundaries in their choice of appearance, career and sexual partner. But when it comes to sex, there is still intense social pressure to conform to the binary model.

This pressure has meant that people born with clear DSDs often undergo surgery to 'normalize' their genitals. Such surgery is controversial because it is usually performed on babies, who are too young to consent, and risks assigning a sex at odds with the child's ultimate gender identity — their sense of their own gender.

Intersex advocacy groups have therefore argued that doctors and parents should at least wait until a child is old enough to communicate their gender identity, which typically manifests around the age of three, or old enough to decide whether they want surgery at all. This issue was brought into focus by a lawsuit filed in South Carolina in May by the adoptive parents of a child known as MC, who was born with ovotesticular DSD, a condition that produces ambiguous genitalia and gonads with both ovarian and testicular tissue.

When MC was 16 months old, doctors performed surgery to assign the child as female — but MC, who is now eight years old, went on to develop a male gender identity. Because he was in state care at the time of his treatment, the lawsuit alleged not only that the surgery constituted medical malpractice, but also that the state denied him his constitutional right to bodily integrity and his right to reproduce. Last month, a court decision prevented the federal case from going to trial, but a state case is ongoing.

The suit will hopefully encourage doctors in the United States to refrain from performing operations on infants with DSDs when there are questions about their medical necessity, she says. Doctors and scientists are sympathetic to these concerns, but the MC case also makes some uneasy — because they know how much is still to be learned about the biology of sex They think that changing medical practice by legal ruling is not ideal, and would like to see more data collected on outcomes such as quality of life and sexual function to help decide the best course of action for people with DSDs — something that researchers are starting to do.

Diagnoses of DSDs once relied on hormone tests, anatomical inspections and imaging, followed by painstaking tests of one gene at a time. Now, advances in genetic techniques mean that teams can analyse multiple genes at once, aiming straight for a genetic diagnosis and making the process less stressful for families.

Vilain, for example, is using whole-exome sequencing — which sequences the protein-coding regions of a person's entire genome — on XY people with DSDs. Vilain, Harley and Achermann say that doctors are taking an increasingly circumspect attitude to genital surgery. Children with DSDs are treated by multidisciplinary teams that aim to tailor management and support to each individual and their family, but this usually involves raising a child as male or female even if no surgery is done.

Yet if biologists continue to show that sex is a spectrum, then society and state will have to grapple with the consequences, and work out where and how to draw the line. Many transgender and intersex activists dream of a world where a person's sex or gender is irrelevant. Although some governments are moving in this direction, Greenberg is pessimistic about the prospects of realizing this dream — in the United States, at least.

So if the law requires that a person is male or female, should that sex be assigned by anatomy, hormones, cells or chromosomes, and what should be done if they clash?

In other words, if you want to know whether someone is male or female, it may be best just to ask. James, P. A , — Article Google Scholar. Arboleda, V. Nature Rev. Sinclair, A. et al. Nature , — Article ADS CAS Google Scholar. Berta, P. Jordan, B. Article CAS Google Scholar. Tomaselli, S. PLoS ONE 6 , e Uhlenhaut, N. Cell , — Matson, C. Hughes, I. El-Khairi, R. Sherwani, A. Case Rep. Tachon, G.

Bianchi, D. Natl Acad. USA 93 , — Maloney, S. Chan, W. PLoS ONE 7 , e Zeng, X. Stem Cells Dev. Link, J. Adipocyte 2 , 74—79 Penaloza, C. FASEB J. Warne, G. Sex Dev. Baxter, R. Download references. Claire Ainsworth is a freelance writer based in Hampshire, UK. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Diversity: Pride in science Sep Policy: NIH to balance sex in cell and animal studies May Ethics: Taboo genetics Oct Intersex surgery disregards children's human rights Apr Brain development: The most important sexual organ Jan Reprints and Permissions. Ainsworth, C. Sex redefined. Download citation. Published : 18 February Issue Date : 19 February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. nature news feature article. Download PDF.

Subjects Developmental biology Genetics Medical research Systems biology. The idea of two sexes is simplistic. Biologists now think there is a wider spectrum than that.

Credit: Illustration by Jonny Wan. LISTEN Your browser does not support the audio element. Claire Ainsworth discusses the spectrum between male and female.

Battle of the sexes. The sex spectrum Table 7. Surgeons discovered that the man had a womb. He was

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DEE-ANN DURBIN AP Business Writer. We complete assignments from scratch to provide you with plagiarism free papers. Discipline: Other. Many societies are now comfortable with men and women crossing conventional societal boundaries in their choice of appearance, career and sexual partner. According to the simple scenario, the presence or absence of a Y chromosome is what counts: with it, you are male, and without it, you are female. The baby was fine — but follow-up tests had revealed something astonishing about the mother. He and his colleagues have shown 17 that the dose of X chromosomes in a mouse's body can affect its metabolism, and studies in a lab dish suggest 18 that XX and XY cells behave differently on a molecular level, for example with different metabolic responses to stress.

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